It is worth remembering that before 1952 there had been up to six earlier married queen regnants of England, Great Britain or the United Kingdom and that, remarkably, none of them had dealt with the problem in the same way.
(1) Matilda. She never used the title ‘Queen’, intending to assume it only after her coronation, so the issue as to whether her husband was ‘King’ never arose.
(2) Lady Jane Grey. The idea of giving the title of ‘King’ to Lord Guildford Dudley was considered, but she had been deposed before any final decision on his title had been made.
(3) Mary I. Philip did become ‘King of England’ and not just in his imagination either - he was granted it by the Act of Parliament ratifying the marriage. It should also be noted that although he was already a king at the time of his marriage, that was as King of Jerusalem, with him not becoming King of Aragon and Castile until eighteen months later.
(4) Mary II. Parliament in 1689 carefully fudged the issue as to whether William III was succeeding by right of his wife, especially as he, not Mary, was then given the right to exercise the powers of monarch. He and Mary may have been officially joint monarchs, but Mary was really just his queen consort.
(5) Anne. George of Denmark received no special titles at all when she became queen, although he had previously been given an English dukedom (in 1689 when his wife had moved up to become first-in-line to the throne).
(6) Victoria. Albert similarly received no special titles when he married Victoria (apart from being upgraded from HSH to HRH), but, unlike Prince George, he never received a peerage. However, Victoria did give him the title ‘Prince Consort’ seventeen years later.
All of which meant that there was no clear precedent for the case of Prince Philip. The solution adopted most closely approximated to the treatment of Prince George of Denmark. There was therefore no change at all in Philip’s titles when his wife succeeded as Elizabeth II. Indeed, the similarity was even closer, as Philip had likewise got his dukedom on becoming the husband of the heiress presumptive.
(Personally, I think the Queen should have given Philip the title Prince Consort when it was agreed that the Duchess of Cornwall will in due course use the title ‘Princess Consort’.)