Why was the state of Israel established.

If this is a debate question, please move it, though I am wondering if there is a factual answer. Due to the recent escalations lately between Israel and Lebanon I wanted to learn why there is so much conflict happening in Israel. I have learned (I think) that it all goes back to the founding of the state in 1948. My question is, why did the Jewish people all of a sudden get their own state. I read that a bunch of them had been moving there for awhile, essentially purposefully increasing their population in the region to get their cause noticed. But did that give them a right to have a nation formed? Are there other reasons beyond the historical/cultural?

There will be no shortage of informative answers to this question by some pretty knowledgebale folks, but a good place to get some baseline info is Wiki:

History of Israel

Land of Israel

History of Palestine

Bear in mind, however, that when speaking of history, opinion and various interpretation of facts will always enter the equation - especially so with this particular subject.

Barbara Tuchman wrote a great book that deals with this question called “Bible and Sword” that I highly recommend to all who are interested in this topic.