Wireless phones

How do cell phones and wireless home phones take the words you are saying into the phone and transfer it to the base?

See Radio.

Yep. In your hand is a tiny little radio transceiver, capable of not only receiving but transmitting radio broadcasts. The base (for cordless landline phones) and the towers (for cell phones) have the corresponding transceivers. Every time you’re using the phone (and for cell phones, even a lot of the time when you’re not), you’re the star of your very own, live on-air radio broadcast.