Watching old footage of WWII I often see anti-aircraft guns shooting wildly into the sky… and subsequent explosions all around attacking aircraft. I’m talking about long range bombers mostly.
While the object is clearly to hit a plane if possible, are the shells being fired set to detonate after a certain amount of time, or at a certain altitude, if they haven’t hit something first, hence the random explosions around the planes? But how can the ammunition be adjusted to match the altitude of incoming aircraft?
And if you are in a bomber that is being fired upon what can you do to avoid being hit by anti-aircraft fire? Change altitude to confound the enemy gunners? Fly higher than their guns can shoot? Use overwhelming numbers to improve the odds of some getting through?