I think Secular Humanism is similar in spirit (if not by word) to what you’re referring to. See here:
Also, check out books by Anthony DeMello-- he also embodies a philosophy similar to what you speak of, but certainly of a more spiritual bent. Now, I must say here that although DeMello was Catholic (Jesuit, actually), he was-- as he wrote-- “painfully aware” of the limitations of the Catholic Church. His teachings rebelled against the structure and methods of mainstream religion, and shockingly, he was eventually excommunicated from the Catholic church for his kindhearted and all-embracing teachings. DeMello is not agnostic in the sense of not being sure about God, but rather, his teachings do not emphasize the existence or the particular identity of God. You could easily follow him even while being an atheist or agnostic, because “God” (in the traditional sense) is not important to the teachings. If I were to condense his philosophy, I’d say that he believes “God” to be the compassion and kindness of the human heart brought to its fullest capacity. I would recommend Heart of the Enlightened and Taking Flight, quite possibly my two favorite books, filled with wonderful short stories, parables, and jokes that come from a wide array of philosophies, religions, and traditionals. Very inspiring, funny, and moving stuff.