My wife is from Egypt and Egypt uses family names but they might not always be “fixed.” Her second cousin took his father’s first name as his last name, which is probably a nod to the “ibn” but he doens’t actually use “ibn.” This is his legal name, on his business card, etc. It is not common IME, however. His brother chose not to do this and uses the same family last name his father uses.
I am not familiar with practices other than Egypt, although my wife’s father’s side is Iraqi and her ancestors there certainly use what we would consider conventional family names. Her last name is the same as her father’s and grandfather’s and the whole family has used that name consistently. However, getting away from Baghdad, Iraq has a tribal social structure and this practice might not be typical in that country.