In Holland you get an invitation to vote through the mail. (All people are required to have their address registered with the city they live in.) It used to be that presenting that was sufficient, although it always said “the chair person of the polling station is authorized to require you to identify yourself”. But ten years ago or so they started requiring ID routinely.
It used to be that the only place you needed a passport is when crossing the border and pretty much nowhere else. Now in the Schengen zone you don’t need show ID when crossing an internal border anymore (although you have to carry it anyway) but these days you have to show ID for pretty much everything else… How is that an improvement?
BTW, you get your driver’s license, national ID card or passport from the city, although they’re manufactured in a central place. The driver’s license is good as ID for almost everything but not good for international travel. The national ID card is good for all kinds of ID purposes and travel within the EU (not just Schengen) and a handful of other places.
From age 14 you are required to have ID and present it in certain situations, although you can round that up to “whenever a police officer asks you to”, i.e., you have to always carry it or you can be fined. Of course they never check whether a card or passport was reported lost so all of this is completely meaningless.