They do technically exist, but I’m not sure if the random consumer can get one. Business (at least large ones) can get them for their employees.
They do this so that they can set the exact limits you were talking about. For example, they can allow them $1000 a month for gas, $1000 for lodging, $5000 for meals (clients), etc.
However, an issue they can bump into is that some stores are categorized the way you’d expect them to be. For example, the customers that would have these limits expect my store to be a deli, but I think my merchant account is set up as grocery or retail so it counts towards the wrong category and I’ve had some of my customer’s cards get denied because of that once or twice over the years. It usually takes a few phone calls (from them, to corporate) to get it cleared up. Of course, if you’re doing this yourself, that shouldn’t matter.
How about just getting a handful of prepaid Visa cards? Put a sticker on each one for what you want to use it for and when your budget resets (or whatever you’re doing) reload them.
I know that’s more of a headache, but I don’t think you’re going to be able to do what you want to do, at least not easily and if you need something to limit your spending that might be the next best thing.