2. What is the correct pronunciation of the Latin “Deus”?
DAY-us, as in “The queen decided not to knight us, but was pleased to day us.” DEE-us is often heard, but is something of an Anglicization. (The “AY” sound is shorter in duration than a normal english long A – think of the difference between quickly reciting the ABCs and the Fonz going “:A-a-a-a-ay” to catch what I’m saying here.
3. What exactly is a Nubian, and what would be the reasoning behind the statement "The ancient Babylonians were Nubian"
The Nubians were and are the darker-skinned Caucasian people living in what was then southernmost Egypt (and independent Nubia occupying the same territory or its southern end), now northernmost Sudan. The meaning of the statement is that the guy is either completely at sea on ancient ethnogeography or has an odd theory about distribution of ethnic groups.
4. And, for that matter, who were the Babylonians? (I’m looking for a brief summary here, time period, region, ethnicity, anything superbly interesting or relevant).
The Babylonians were the people living in and around the city of Babylon, which was an independent kingdom and in two short periods an empire. The periods in question are about 1500-1000 BC and 626-539 BC, between which it was a province of Assyria. The area is the southern end of the Tigris and Euphrates Valley(s), in southern Iraq. The latter period is sometimes called the Chaldean Empire, the Chaldeans being a related tribe which asserted Babylonian independence of Assyria and established a large but shortlived empire. The people were typical Middle Eastern folk speaking a now-extinct Semitic language.