There are many cities in India ending in what I presume to be a suffix, “-pur”. Is this thought to be a cognate to the Greek “-polis” and the Latinate “ville/villa”?
Indeed. “Pura” just means “town” in Sanskrit.
My understand is that “bury” in English (see Salisbury, Asbury Park, etc) would be a direct descendant. In Thai it has evolved into “buri”, as in Chonburi.
But Thai is not an Indo-European langauge, so if that’s related to an Indo-European word, it was borrowed from an Indo-European language and is not a native Thai word.
I suspect that British ‘bury/burgh’ is related to German ‘burg’.
Not unreasonable to suspect German ‘burg’ is from the same Sanskrit root.
It wouldn’t be from a Sanskrit root, it would be from an Indo-European root-- the same root from which the Sanskrit word was derived.
As for the OP…
-polis and -pur come from the I-E root “pel”, meaning a citadel or a fortified high place
-ville/villa comse from the I-E root “weik”, meaning a clan