As has been mentioned, it comes down to location, location, location. There have been airplanes that suffered catastrophic damage and landed safely, and airplanes brought down by teeny-weeny component failures.
Depressurizing the airplane by itself won’t bring it down, but having vital personnel sucked out of a large hole or passing out from lack of oxygen could - which is why there are very strict rules about pilots having oxygen masks on hand/wearing oxygen masks.
Explosion + fuel tank = very big explosion and probably everyone dies
Explosion + severely damaging/severing a wing or tail = probably everyone dies (although the current record for surviving an extreme fall without a parachute is held by an airline attendant who rode an airplane fragment down from tens of thousands of feet)
Explosion + severing vital control components = likely everyone dies (though at least one airline has been landed with no functioning hydraulic-powered flight controls where a significant number of people survived, though not all)
Small explosion that starts a fire, filling the fuselage with smoke, may kill all aboard even before a crash as burning airplane parts generate highly toxic gasses and lots of smoke. If the fire burns through vital controls you will probably crash. If it burns to a fuel tank the airplane will likely explode and kill everyone on board. However, not all small fires will get so out of control, there is a limited fire-fighting capacity on board, and the the fuselage can be flushed with fresh air after a fire to improve the air quality (though that doesn’t happen instantly).
It’s impractical to “bombproof” airplanes by armoring them because the weight would increase to the point that you can’t get the thing off the ground. Hence the focus on trying to keep bombs off the airplane in the first place.
Where the hypothetical bomber sits may be significant as far as results are concerned or how long you have to fight a small fire before it does something you can’t fix in flight.