I have a Victrola model 02 - just about the last-ever wind-up portable, sold (but not made) by RCA Victor about 1940. It will play about two 78rpm sides (±6-7 min) when fully wound without losing speed.
The first electric phonographs came out in the late 1920s.
My Victrola (a 1912 model VV-X) almost makes it through two sides on one wind. I have no idea if that’s because my spring is a smidge weaker than Doug’s, or if I’m not winding it as tight as it possibly can go - I wind it “comfortably” tight - I’d really hate to find the exact limit by having the thing go SPROING!
According to this page, the first Victrola with an electric motor option was developed in 1913. It was of only moderate success due to the limited availability of electricity in homes. It wasn’t until the 1920s that the electric models, or Electrolas, met any success.