I enlisted in 1999. I was in Military Intelligence, and went through Basic with Support and Service Support personnel; Combat Arms personnel probably got more weapons training in Basic, and definitely got more in Advanced Individual Training. I was also a Reservist in a rear echelon unit; I went through the same Basic and AIT as (and with) Active Duty Soldiers, but my weapons training after that was much less than Active Duty Soldiers, or Reserve Component Soldiers in Combat Arms or Combat Support units would have gotten.
For the M16A2: I trained on a simulator, but not much. I don’t recall the details, but I doubt I fired more than 80 “rounds”. I had a couple of sessions of live fire training, then zeroing and qualifying. Again, I don’t remember the details, but all told I probably fired a few hundred live rounds. I didn’t fire a weapon at all in AIT. I also went to the Defense Language School - we handled some dummy weapons, and had a couple of very brief field exercises where we had rifles, but not even any blanks. After that, as a Reservist, I went to the range once a year to qualify. Before both of my deployments, as part of the pre-deployment process, I had to re-qualify. For one deployment, we did some live fire training before qualification; the other time, we just went directly to the qualification range. When I went to PLDC (training school for becoming a Sergeant), we did a few days of training and field exercises with blanks. Some Reserve units I know of also did live fire training outside of the annual qualification, but mine didn’t.
For the M60: I fired around 50 rounds, I think, in Basic. Basically just familiarization.
For the M240: We handled, disassembled, and loaded one with dummy rounds in Basic. Never fired it.
For the AT4 rocket launcher and the Claymore mine: I trained with some dummies in Basic. One Soldier from each Platoon got to actually use a live one, under very close supervision by the trainer. Never handled or even saw any after that.
Hand Grenades: Handled and threw a bunch of dummy grenades and fragmentation simulators. Threw live two fragmentation grenades, under close supervision by a trainer. (Aside - one Soldier in my Platoon made a horrible throw - I think it slipped out of her hand. It landed only a few yards from her. The trainer slammed her to the ground and covered her with his body. She got it past the sandbags, and they were both wearing body armor and helmets - both were perfectly fine, but it was a scary moment to watch, and that’s why we were all under very close supervision while handling explosives). I never used or even saw a live grenade after that.
Bayonets: We had basically one day in Basic learning how to handle them, as well as how to use the M16A2 as a club, and went through a bayonet course. On my first deployment, we were issued bayonets. Other than that, I don’t think I ever saw a bayonet, much less used or trained with one.
M9 Pistol: My Reserve unit had a few of these. On one of our annual trips to the range, the unit leadership offered to let anyone interested try to qualify, and I was interested. I got a brief lesson on proper handling, fired a dozen rounds or so for familiarization, and then went to the qualification course. During one deployment, I was assigned for part of the time as a Colonel’s driver, and was issued an M9. I didn’t get any live fire training with it, but I did re-qualify on it.
M2 Browning Heavy Machinegun: During training for my second deployment, I handled and partially disassembled and reassembled one, and loaded and unloaded dummy rounds. Never actually fired it.
After 8 years in the Army Reserves and two deployments, I probably fired somewhere between 1,000 and 2,000 rounds with an M16A2, less than 100 with an M9, 50 or so with an M60, and threw two live grenades.
Again, though, I was Reservist, in a in a rear echelon unit. I probably had the least weapons training it would be possible to have had in the U.S. Army during that period.