This. Assuming your ice cubes have enough surface area to keep the entire contents of the bottle at the freezing point despite whatever heat transfer is happening at the outer surface of the bottle, adding more ice surface area won’t keep things cooler, and won’t make the ice cubes melt faster.
ZenBeam is onto something interesting, though. You can increase the length of time for which the beverage is kept at the freezing/melting point by increasing the mass of ice in the bottle - and you can do that by using a multitude of ice cube sizes, with the small ones occupying the spaces between the large ones (think of concrete, which uses aggregate in several sizes ranging from gravel down to sand). Note however that it may be difficult to achieve this without painstakingly putting in a few large cubes, then a few small cubes, then a few large ones, etc., etc.
Barring that, use ice cubes that are small with respect to the size of the bottle, since cubes that are large (with respect to the size of the bottle) won’t pack efficiently. If you are a nitpicky scientist, you can weigh the bottle after filling with large cubes, and then weigh it after filling with small cubes to see which one gives you more ice.