This question is only going to make sense to people who are very familiar with both older and newer versions of iOS and iTunes.
Traditionally, if you wanted to listen to podcasts on your iPhone, you transferred them over from iTunes, just like with the iPod Classic, and then you went to your phone and found them under the “iPod” app.
Then a later version of iOS split the iPod app into several different apps. Music went to the “Music” app and Podcasts went to the “Podcast” app. You could still sync music from iTunes to the “Music” app the same as before, but the “Podcast” app was now independent of iTunes and you had to stream or download podcast episodes directly from the internet.
However, when I plug my iPhone into iTunes, I can still sync everything else—plus, the podcast syncing menu is still there, same as before, and when I choose to sync them, it looks like it’s syncing podcasts. But how can I find those synced podcast episodes on the iPhone? They’re not there.
And if you are going to ask me “Why don’t you just stream or download podcasts directly from the internet and use the ‘Podcast’ app like they want you to?” Well, because it’s a pain in the ass. Half the time it loses the connection and won’t load and then it gets permanently screwed up. And the other half of the time, the “Podcast” app decides that all the episodes—even the ones that have been downloaded—are “not available at this time.”
Fuck that. I want to just sync my podcasts from iTunes like I used to.