Is there a specific name for this type of map layout?

Double hemisphere on the left and right, two smaller tangentially located circles between the hemispheres containing any type of content, artwork filling the rest of blank space (like so)

The content can be anything but should have the three attributes described. Is this a style or are they all based on one famous atlas?

I’m not aware of a name for the combination. But those look like four stereographic projection maps to me; two equatorial stereographic maps and two polar stereographic maps.

I don’t know, but “double hemisphere polar map” found several that look very similar.