Cartridge-based, endless loop tape. But it’s not an 8-track, it’s a Tefi-fon! Basically a merge with the 8-track cart idea and an LP record, with physical grooves. Take a look at this great video and learn how it works.
I have a Thorens music box disk player with about 40 disks. This page says they peaked before 1905. I wasn’t aware mine were that old; I thought they were new in the 1940’s. The player still works fine, and the disks are made of metal, so they are highly durable.
Since the player rotated each disk at the same speed, the song had to fit into the allotted time (maybe 30 seconds?). Most songs play much faster than you might expect, barely recognizable in some cases.
Try the Wikipedia page. The original link was great, as it showed closeups of the mechanism from several angles, and it was obvious that the sound reproduction was amazingly good – better than 78s, perhaps a little less than 33s. Maybe YT decided it was too new, and banned it.