I did not change my name when I got married (Horrors!!!). I had a few relatives who for years would send checks to me with my first name and my husband’s last name in the TO: box. As long as I endorsed the checks with my real (maiden) name, I never had a problem.
I even occasionally get checks with my last name misspelled–a common error, actually–like Thomson instead of the more normal Thompson. The bank has never blinked an eye when I deposited them.
Most paychecks do include your mailing address on the check, so the bank can always use that as a confirmation. (It would be very unusual to have Kiminy Thomson living at the same address as Kiminy Thompson!)
In the long run, I think that banks depend more on the signee to cancel erroneously-written checks than they do on the fact that a person might try to deposit or cash a check that they received fraudulently. After all, how often would it happen that Kiminy Thompson would have an account at the same bank that Kiminy Thomson has an account???