It’s only two bars long. It’s basically the main melody of the Carter Family recording “Chewing Gum”, which is probably the most explicit and locatable place I can point to.
It’s also present in a lot of cartoon soundtracks and the like. E.g., the Simpsons’ “Itchy and Scratchy” used it at least once that I remember.
You can hear it in “Northwest Hounded Police”, an MGM cartoon directed by Tex Avery: when an escaped fugitive lays eyes on a plastic surgeon’s sign (and subsequently gets an operation to evade Officer Droopy), it plays ominously and loudly.
This is a sketch of the outline of the melody (syncopated flourishes around which are often added):
(C is the highest note hee, G the lowest).
The Carter Family song is the earliest place I’ve found it, but I suspect it may be even older.