(don’t follow any of the links in this post, if you don’t want to spoil the riddle)
The critter I’m thinking of fits all of the clues exactly, if one allows for the KJV translation. First animal mentioned as being created, no hands, feet, or legs, a true living being, named by Adam (but then, that doesn’t say much), seldom appearing on Earth, at one point in the Bible God put a soul in one, travels from pole to pole (not quite accurate, but close enough, especially to 19th century knowledge), light produced from dead ones. All the rhetoric about “I can’t understand the Bible, I don’t have free will, etc.” are just because it’s a “mere” animal, not a human. On actually looking it up, by the way, bibliophage is right: The usage in Job does refer to this particular creature. I was thinking of a different passage.
Meanwhile, we’ve all missed the point of the OP, which was to ask whether the riddle is really as old as is claimed on that page, i.e., written in 1890. I don’t know any of the history of it, but some of the references would be more familiar to a person of that era than now. No reason to believe that it isn’t genuinely old.