There are many areas around Pittsburgh that have excellent schools, especially if you’re looking at the suburbs. People with kids can probably answer this better than me, though, if you’re looking for which specific areas have the best schools.
The gun laws here are pretty owner friendly. No permits of any kind are needed to own long guns or pistols, although you should probably check with the PA State Police if you’re planning on transferring firearms that you own where you live now into the state, as I’m not sure what those regulations are.
For PA residents to buy firearms, it’s pretty simple. You have to go through the NICS check and fill out the BATF 4473 and there’s one other state form if you’re buying a handgun. There are many wonderful shooting ranges and gun clubs in the area, as well as outdoor ranges at most of the state game lands. Obtaining a concealed carry license is done through the county sheriff’s office, and they can provide you with all the info that you need. It’s not expensive, but you do need to apply in the county that you live in. Pittsburgh is in Allegheny County. Counties in the immediate area are Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Washington and Westmoreland.
Public transportation isn’t up to the level of say, NYC or DC, but it does exist. Smog requirements are more relaxed than California, although most counties do require emissions test with annual inspection. Allegheny and Washington definitely do, although I’m not sure about the others. The two seasons of the year here are winter and construction, so be prepared to see lots of orange barrels when the warmer months hit.
Not sure about the minimum wage here, since I haven’t had a minimum wage job in a long time. I think it’s currently $5.15 an hour.
Western PA is a nice area, lots of scenery and forests, and there are many state parks and things like biking trails if you like to get out and do things like that. I’m not sure if you like things like canoeing, kayaking or rafting, but there’s a place kind of southeast of Pittsburgh called Ohiopyle that’s good for those sorts of activities, and there are camping areas located within a 90 minute drive of the city.
There are quite a few Pittsburgh area Dopers, so I’m sure you can get answers to any questions you might think up.