You keep thinking in terms of Newtonian physics. Time and space aren’t constants in relativity!
To answer your first part of the question: Matter creates space and space creates time. Take away matter (the stars and planets), there would be no such thing as space or time.
The second part of your question is a bit trickier.
When you travel closer to the speed of light, the Universe contracts in the direction of travel, and time for you slows down. You wouldn’t see these effects because you’re stuck in your frame of reference.
Thus, if you shoot a beam of light out in front of your spaceship (which we’ll say is moving at 90% of the speed of light), you’ll see the light move at the speed of light in reference to your spaceship. In other words, you’ll see no difference no matter how fast or slow you’re traveling or which direction you shoot the beam of light. It will always move at the speed of light in reference to your spaceship.
The strange thing is that an outside observer would also see the beam move at the speed of light, but only a bit faster than your ship.
Here’s two thought experiments:
Your ship is moving at the speed of light, to you time is at a standstill. You look at your watch (well, you can’t because time is at a standstill, but let’s pretend). You see the time is 12:00.
You travel from Star “A” to Star “B” and look at your watch again, it still says 12:00 on it. How far apart are the two stars? By the way, the speed of light is 300 million meters per second. I’ll give you a few minutes to do the calculations. (You travel 300 millions meters per second for zero minutes. How far have you traveled?).
Okay, time’s up. Put down your paper and pencils. The correct answer is that the two stars are zero meters apart. When you move at the speed of light, the universe collapses into a flat pancake. Not only that, but if you look out the side window, you’ll notice that all events are taking place simultaneously in your two dimensional universe.
You are on a train box car with glass sides on your left and right. In the middle is a light source. The light source splits the beam and hits two detectors on the front and back of the train car. If you fire off a beam of light, you’ll notice that the light beam hits the front and back of your train car at the same time.
Let’s say, according to an outside observer, your train car is moving 50% of the speed of light. That observer sees you fire off a beam of light, and since the back of the train car is moving towards the beam and the front is moving away from the beam, that observer will see the beam of light hit the back of the train before the front of the train.
Now, according to the same observer, while he was watching this experiment, another train moving at 90% of the speed of light passes you on the far side.
What does an observer in this train see? He sees you moving in the opposite direction of the first observer. For the sake of simplicity, we’ll say he sees the train car as moving backwards. This new observer also sees the experiment. However, since the front of the car is moving towards the beam of light, and the back of the car is moving away from the beam of light, he sees the light strike the front of the car before the back of the car.
So, you all meet for lunch and discuss your findings:
You: The beam of light hit the back and front of the car at the same time.
First observer: No, the beam of light hit the back of the car before the front.
Second observer: Are you crazy? The beam of light clearly hit the front of the car before the back of the car!
Who’s right? All three observers are. The ordering of events, like time itself, is not fixed in relativity. It all depends upon the observer.
Mind blown? Then my work here is done.