Some publically held corporations (perhaps “many,” maybe even “all”) provide a mechanism in their bylaws for making a list of all stockholders entitled to vote at the annual meeting (i.e., a list of all stockholders, their mailing addresses, and the number of shares they hold as of the record date) available for inspection by any other stockholder. The list may be available electronically, or at the corporation offices, or at the annual meeting, depending on the company. For details on the process regarding a specific company, try googling the company name, “bylaws”, and “list”.
Note that you have to be a shareholder. Also note that being a shareholder only requires that you own one share.
Note also that many people hold their shares in “street name” which means that their individual names will not appear in the above list; their brokerage’s will, with their shares combined with all of the other shares owned by that brokerage’s clients.
Others have indicated where you can find info on large holders, and insider holdings as well. I think you can find lists of all institutional holders on nasdaq.com for all US stocks, not just NASDAQ stocks.
I know of no way for a member of the public to access a list of all shareholders (including individuals with small holdings) of a company, nor do I think even the company can do that without requesting lists from all brokerages that have clients that own their stock.
If you tell us what your purpose is, we might be able to find another way to get you the information you need.