A better question might be: “What basic foodstuffs that are normally sold in a refregeration-required form, do NOT have a shelf-stable alternative?”.
And in todays world, considering camping food, convenience food, processed food, etc., I think that list is gonna be pretty short if you stay at the level of base ingredients.
Eggs, milk, bread, fruit, meat (any animal flesh), veggies, etc., are all available in shelf-stable (if rather yukky) form. Beans, nuts, flour, sugar, and spices are already shelf-stable for months if not years. Oils, especially the unhealthy ones, are also shelf-stable for months if not years. And that pretty well covers the list of what humans eat.
When you go up the chain to more complete entrees, that’s where the problem is. I doubt you can get a shelf-stable pheasant under glass or baked alaska anywhere. But they do make camping “ice cream” that has the taste & mouth feel of room-temperature real ice cream. OTOH, garden salad is one simple dish that (AFAIK) isn’t available in shelf-stable form.
So I suspect the underlying issue is more one of the complexity of the dish, consumer demand for it in shelf-stable form, & how well it can survive the modifications needed to stuff it into a can, pouch, etc.