What are the procedures for issuing military munitions?

Who decides who gets what munitions and how much in a combat zone? (I’m generally speaking about the American armed forces but I’m interested in how other armed forces do it as well.) Is there a set quota of what you get or is it more a matter of how much you need? Assuming there’s no shortage can you ask for extra “just in case”? Are records kept to ensure people aren’t “wasting” ammunition? Suppose I’m a supply clerk but I want some anti-tank weapons and landmines in case such insurgents attack my depot - how likely am I to get my request? Who makes these decisions? Obviously, NBC weapons have special restrictions but are there other weapons with special controls on their issue?

On the assumption that everyone in the armed forces took the weekend off, I’m giving this a Monday morning bump.

Not U.S. military, here - Israeli army.

It’s like this: there’s ammunition, and there’s munitions.

Ammo - 5.56mm and such - is available to whoever wants it. It’s impossible to keep track of the things, so no-one tries. There are usually boxes of it lying around a campsite and troopscan take as much as they like, although most guys don’t take much more than they’re required to, as the 8-9 magazine required carry in combat zones is usually more than enough.

Munitions - things that go boom - they’re a lot more closely guarded. Only certain officers (generally company XOs - that’s traditionally their job) have permission to go to the depot and sign off on the stuff, and only after receiving permission from even higher-ranked officers. The XOs will usually pick up certain basic munitions once they arrive at the field, and sign them off to troops for permanant safekeeping; that’s how guys will have their basic load of granades and so forth. Before missions, the XO will go pick up specific munitions based on the mission plan, hand them out, and keep careful track of their use, returning those that haven’t been used to the depot after they get back. In short, it’s pretty well organized.

Now, if the troops ware in a war zone and ammo cannisters are dropping from the sky, then there won’t be as much signing and record-keeping as there was back at base. Still, even then it’s the officers’ job to carefully allocate supplies, making sure each soldier has exactly what the mission calls for, no more, no less.

It depends upon where you are. In fixed establishments in the US, military basea and the like, ammunition is strictly controlled, or is supposed to be. Some CO’s are lax and other are strict. The closer you get to where the fighting is, the more ammunition is accessible.

James Jones used an actual event in the novel From Here To Eternity. During the attack on Pearl Harbor and the nearby Army base, the Ordnance Sgt. in charge of the gun room-magazine refused to give guys ammunition without a writter order from the command, which was SOP up until the attack.

Carrying guns was discouraged, really discouraged, in the squadron I was in so there were practically no guns or ammunition in the squadron area. I only knew of one guy who carried a gun on missions but there might have been others.

Ammo (and everything else from uniforms to TP) is usually issued according to a pre-defined “scale of issue”, which is usually dependant on what type of unit it is and what it is supposed to be doing. In actual combat, this can be adjusted on the fly as required, presuming only that the munitions are actually available to be issued, which depends a great deal on how much slack has been built into the supply system.

Ammunition is not a “supply” type issue. Supply items go through company supply sergeants and battalion S4. Ammunition is an operations item and is dealt with through company executive officers and battalion S-3.
In garrison, there is a certain amount of ammunition allocated for certain training activities. If a company is going to go out to qualify with their rifles, there is a certain number of rounds they are allowed to request. If they need more for some reason (like people are shooting really shitty), they can request more with through email and phone calls. The unit is limited to the types of ammunition allocated for that training event though. They can’t request some TOW missles if they’re out doing hand grenade training, etc.
Ammunition, even 5.56 is pretty strictly controled. You have to turn in all the empty brass and cardboard and everything. It’s even more strict with more explosive and dangerous items. The stuff left over is called “doneage”. There is a certain amount of doneage expected based on how much was issued. For instance, brass. If the weight of the brass is not what is expected for the amount of ammunition issued, then it’s assumed some ammo has been stolen or is missing. More paperwok is required if this happens.
For grenades, all the pins must be accounted for. Missles… all the tubes and end caps and wooden crates and such must be turned back in or there will be an investigation by CID.
In combat, it can still get kinda silly with missles and grenades and claymores. But it depends on the unit. But generally, each unit is allocated certain ammunition and munitions based on their mission, MTOE and METL. (You can use google for help) Resupply is comes regularly and, if needed, the company can request emergency resupply if they’ve exhausted their resources quicker than expected.
There are still practice ranges at FOBs in combat. And soldiers are encouraged to shoot often. There’s always ammo available to whomever needs or wants it-- unit depending, of course.

I am short on time this morning, please excuse my short answer.

The most remarkable thing about supply in wartime is the one-way accountability. Not just ammunition but most stuff seems to be signed for, but then accountability is lost. I still have three helmet, two protective masks and lots of whatnot issued to me for operations and never returned.

Now as for WHY I have that junk, I suppose that is a psychological question.

Operational combat equipment is expendable. But don’t lose a GI blanket.

Is this because you served in peacetime? I know my dad had a gun when he flew in Korea.

No, it was during WWII. Everyone was issued a Colt .45 and many in other squadrons in the group carried them. Our squadron command quite definitely discourage it. At our orientation sessions at the overseas replacement depot we were strongly advised not to carry weapons on missions. You are not going to shoot your way out of Germany with a pistol and quite likely all it would do is get you killed.

Conversely, those going to the Pacific Theater were advised to carry the gun.