I agree with others that sheer tribalism is a big part of it - Trump said it was no problem, so that became the tribal Republican line.
I think however if we look internationally there is something inherent in the right wing mindset that makes it hard for them to handle this sort of epidemic. Boris has struggled in the UK. Bolsonaro in Argentina. In Australia (IMHO) the right wing federal government and the right wing state governments have been less effective than the left wing state governments.
The key thing about fast moving ie highly infectious epidemics is they are best combatted by extreme collective action in which everybody does something - with no immediate and obvious benefit to themselves - for the benefit of the wider (non-monkeysphere) community. Not only that but the collective action probably necessitates providing financial support to the wider (non-monkeysphere) community who are put out of work. And then the ultimate resolution involves everyone having a minor medical intervention - vaccination - not because one is sick or someone in one’s monkeysphere is sick, but for the benefit of the community at large.
So we have collective action, collective healthcare, and redistribution of resources to the wider community. These are all concepts that align more readily with left wing than right wing thinking.
Then, the thing that does spur the right wing mindset to collective action is external threat, but the collective action is directed outwards. If a logical effective collective response to the epidemic was to invade the Middle East, Trump would have done it ages ago.
I don’t think that the difference between the reaction to COVID as opposed to Ebola has anything to do with the specific symptoms of the diseases. Ebola was an external threat and never became an internal threat so the right wing mindset (keep it out!) worked well. Also, even had it got loose in the US, it is only transmitted in relatively “within monkeysphere” ways (direct transfer of bodily fluids of someone who has the symptoms). Charity and collective action within monkeysphere is a right wing value. COVID’s far more insidiuous and anonymous and fleeting respiratory transmission requires an “everybody” response that the right wing mind baulks at.
To be clear I don’t want to insult the intelligence of every right wing person by suggesting they are all incapable of perceiving and responding to the threat of something like COVID. My point is just that it necessitates a response that jars with right wing thinking and that perhaps causes more right than left wing people to react badly, or more slowly, etc.