Are you using a proxy server? If you are, then your browser doesn’t contact google directly. It sends the request to the proxy server which then sends the request to google. Google’s web server then sends the reply to the proxy server which forwards it back to you.
Depending on the way your network is set up, you may be able to ping the proxy server but not ping anything external to it on the internet.
Can you ping anything else on your local network? (is there anything else on your local network?)
Do you have a router that may or may not be acting as a proxy server? Is your router set to filter off pings to and from the external network?
Much like other posters, I would guess that there’s a firewall (the Windows one, a third-party one, or one on your router) specifically blocking pings / ICMP traffic. Check your firewall configuration. ETA: Oh, and to echo* another, make sure your firewall isn’t blocking the cmd app, too.
Also, what can you successfully ping? Can yo ping 127.0.0.1? Can you ping your own IP address? Can you ping your gateway’s IP address? Can you ping your DNS server (assuming it’s your ISP and not the same as your gateway)?