Yes, the three options for running Windows programs on an Intel Mac are Bootcamp, virtual machines, and Wine. (Remote access involves running Windows on a distant machine; I won’t cover it here.)
As others have said, Bootcamp splits your hard drive and gives you a second partition in which you can install Windows. You can then choose at boot whether to start Mac OS or Windows.
Both operating systems are completely separate, and you can only run one at a time. Apple provides drivers for Windows to enable it to access the Mac’s hardware.
*Virtual machines. *
There are several programs which will emulate a complete computer inside themselves, and allow you to install Windows (or other operating systems) on that computer. The emulated computer is known as a ‘virtual machine’ (VM). The installed OS is called the ‘guest’ OS.
As far as the installed OS can tell, the virtual machine includes complete hardware: processor, memory, hard drive, video card, networking, everything. You can even connect your physical hardware to the virtual machine (this prevents programs outside the virtual-machine program from using the connected hardware, though). You can set this up from a control panel provided by the virtual machine program.
The most well-known VM software seems to be Parallels, VMWare, and VirtualBox. On the Mac, VMWare’s product is called Fusion. At different times, I’ve used Fusion to run Windows XP, Windows 7, several versions of Ubuntu Linux, PuppyLinux, a preconfigured Drupal server, and even Haiku.
If your host machine is powerful enough, you can actually run more than one virtual machine at the same time. Virtual machines can have different configurations of their virtual hardware, and can be set up to communicate with each other, or with other machines on your network.
You install Windows or another OS into a virtual machine in the same way as you install it into physical hardware. There are drivers you can install to allow the guest OS to access both the virtual machine’s hardware and your physical hardware outside the VM program; they allow such things as drag-and-drop of files between your main Mac OS desktop and the desktop of the guest OS.
Parallels and Fusion, at least, even have a feature that will copy an existing PC into a virtual machine. I have never used this and don’t know how well it works.
The third choice is Windows emulation. In this, a program running on Mac OS provides the operating-system services that a Windows program needs to run. There is no copy of WIndows involved.
The Windows-emulation program I’ve used is Wine. This was commercialized as Crossover. What I found was that it works, but is extremely picky. The emulator can only handle very specific versions of the Windows programs you might want to use (like Photoshop or Office). If you don’t have those specific versions, it won’t work at all.
I found that, you you have a powerful-enough computer, a virtual machine is the most flexible of the options. It gives you a full Windows installation, so you can do anything you can with a Windows-only PC. It allows easy transfer of files between the host OS and Windows.