In English (and presumably other languages), shorter words are usually simpler or more basic words. You’ve got your prepositions. You’ve got your pronouns. You’ve got your articles. And most one syllable words are very basic concepts, like “foot” or “high” or “love” or “hit”.
On the other side of things 3- or more syllable words are usually fairly precise and specialized things.
There are a fair number of single syllable words that do not deserve to be so short. For instance, jess, “A short strap fastened around the leg of a hawk or other bird used in falconry, to which a leash may be fastened.” What are more examples? And can anyone think of a three- or more syllable word that really ought to be (or at least COULD be) only one syllable? The best I’ve come up with so far is “emergency”.