English surnames are pretty easy to figure out.
Ford is a shallow crossing in the stream. Atwater means “at-the-water”. And so forth.
Possessive are pretty easy to figure out too. Johnson means “John’s son”. Peters means “of Peter”.
And then there are single word last names, with no possessive or “son” which I have never been able to figure out.
A person might be named John James for example. Or Peter Robert.
What does a proper last name mean without the possessive or son?