Knowing that your daughter likes Picasso, I will (reluctantly) mention Alexandra Nechita, who is still in her teens, and her style has led to such descriptions has “the petite Picasso.” My own opinion is that she’s an overhyped hack, but that may just be me. Lots of hits on Google if you care to do a search.
Interesting that so many people mentioned Artemisia Gentileschi, since that’s the first name to pop into my head when I saw the OP.
If Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun is your (or her) cup of tea, then by all means check out Anne Vallayer-Coster, who was Marie-Antoinette’s court painter, and her recent rediscovery (if that’s the right word) is now a touring exhibit.
Since people have already mentioned several 19th Century artists, let’s skip right into the Modern age and get to Lee Krasner, who was Jackson Pollock’s wife and an accomplished painter in her own right. A contemporary to Krasner, but in a different style, is the great minimalist Agnes Martin. Also of the same age but working in sculpture, there is Louise Bourgeois.
Now, to our own time, there are certainly lots of working female artists, with varying levels of name recognition. Anyway, given that, a couple off the top of my head are Magdalena Abakanowicz, April Gornik, Linda Ridgway, and Susie Rosmarin, who is an Op artist similar to the aforementioned Bridget Riley.
I was going to be a nit-picker (well, I guess I am) and correct the spelling to Georgia O’Keeffe, with 2 Fs, but that brought to mind Native American pottery of the Southwest, which is a field filled with women.