National Geographic did a survey in 2002 - the report is here.
Doesn’t quite answer the breadth of your question - no Africans polled for example, but many other interesting facets explored. Cant readily find a more recent update.
The highlights in the executive summary for your infojyment.
"Overall, knowledge of geography among young adults in the U.S. continues to trail that of young adults in most other countries surveyed, and there is little to no improvement since the 1988 survey. However, young Americans are not alone. Some of their peers outside the U.S. also struggled with basic geography facts, most notably young adults in Mexico, and to a lesser degree those in Canada and Great Britain.
Answering about 70% of questions correctly, young adults in Sweden, Germany and Italy ranked the highest of the nine countries surveyed. They were followed by the French (61%) and Japanese (55%). Respondents in Great Britain answered 50% correctly. Their peers in Canada, the U.S. and Mexico answered fewer than half the questions correctly.
Young adults in America are fairly knowledgeable about geographic issues closer to home that impact their lives — for example, the origin of most immigrants to the U.S. today — but young adults worldwide have a stronger grasp of some issues that are beyond their own borders compared with Americans. Out of 56 questions that were asked across all countries surveyed, on average, young Americans answer 23 questions correctly, Even on those questions where American young adults answered correctly, they still were ranked in the bottom third or below the half-way mark."