I have sort of had something like that happen. Not quite that brief, and not quite that without other symptoms, but I have had a scratchy throat one day, that I don’t even really notice except upon refection, badly stuffy/runny nose the next, that tapers into a cough from post-nasal drip by the evening, and lots of throat clearing and a little coughing the next day, but that’s it. On the day with the runny nose, I usually feel run-down, but depending on what I have to get done, can power through with caffeine. I don’t if I can avoid it, though, because I am probably contagious.
That is how colds manifest in me since I had my tonsils and adenoids out. Before that, they were usually miserable, 10-day ordeals that usually involved my ears being stopped up for a couple of days, and even fevers above 100’F.
I realize you would have mentioned it if something dramatic like a tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy had that happened to you, but still, I’m mentioning this because it is possible for cold viruses to go through you very quickly. Just because it isn’t typical, doesn’t mean that it can’t happen; you may have gotten something you were partially immune to, somehow, so you mounted a defense more quickly and effectively than you would to an unfamiliar strain, but not as well as you would to something you were fully immune to. Maybe it was something you had a really long time ago and either your immunity had faded a little, or the virus had mutated just a little.
The idea that you had something lodged up there is probably more likely, but I’m just putting this out there as another possibility.
Then, in regard to allergies, there are some things that can come in a high enough dose that even non-allergic people will react. Maybe you were exposed to a really high level of something. Or maybe you are allergic to something, and were just exposed for the first time. Did you do anything new, or go any place you’ve never been before? Change any brands of soaps or detergents? Eat anything new to your diet?
FWIW, you can have a rhinitis reaction to a non-inhalant. It’s less common, but it happens.