It depends how adventurous you’re feeling, but I wouldn’t suggest trying to drive anywhere. You could take the CalTrain north for an hour to San Francisco and have a nice few hours downtown (last stop) before heading back to Santa Clara for your meeting. Or take it for half an hour and enjoy University Ave in Palo Alto. Or 20 minutes north to Castro Street in Mountain View for pretty much the same experience.
The thing is that San Jose itself is kind of sketchy and boring, as are several towns btwn SJ and SF, but some of them are nice and would be a much better way to fill the time. So going north from SJ in order of nice would be Castro Street (Red Rocks Coffee on Castro & Villa), University (Philz on Forest btwn Alma & High St), then maybe Burlingame (pretty town but I have no idea where to get coffee) and then a bunch of don’t bother until you get to SF.
The CalTrain station is right near the airport (I’m sure there’s a shuttle) and it will take you all the way up the Peninsula quick and easy. There’s also a station right across the street from Santa Clara University if that helps figure out your meeting travel.
If you do decide to stay in San Jose it’s possible to have fun, just get yourself downtown and maybe check out the SJ Museum of Art or the Tech Museum, both are really great and I’m sure they have coffee spots.
Or, you know, zoom over the hill to Santa Cruz