But it’s not just Article I, Section 8, para. 17.
There’s also Article IV, Section 2, as cited earlier by Isildur:
That provision follows on the pre-Constitution Northwest Ordinance passed by the Congress under the Articles of Confederation, by which the states ceded their land claims to the US government.
So there are two provisions in the Constitution which recognise federal power to regulate federal property: the exclusive power in Article I, which only operates if the state has ceded jurisdiction, and the property power in Article IV, which gives the Congress power to regulate federal property not covered by Article I, and without prejudice to the states’ jurisdiction: a concurrent power, not an exclusive power.
The Tenth Amendment only operates with respect to “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution…” That doesn’t leave much room here, where you have two separate provisions which both give Congress the power to regulate federal property.